Assessment 4 – 20th Century Type – Final Product

It’s done! I have changed the quote to make it something less humorous (aww) and have added a little grid decoration underneath it. Also edited the text a little bit, as I found some typos in the previous version which I printed out.



Assessment 4 – 20th Century Type – Finalising Submission

I have taken a few days away from this project to clear my head, but after doing another review of it this morning, I’m pretty happy with where it’s at. Time to print out another rough version to double and triple check everything, and then I’ll send it off to be printed.

I have contacted the printer I used last trimester for another subject, but they have quoted me $40 for the job, so I might have to use Officeworks, which is only $20. Or there’s an option to use a printer near Swinburne, that means I’d also be saving on postage, but I think I’d like to see it before it gets sent off.

Below is a smaller JPG version, and I’ve also uploaded a PDF version.


Assessment 4 – 20th Century Type – Draft Analysis


This is my favourite version so far. I finally feel like it’s coming together.

I have changed the heading line to be a little less prominent, and have changed some of the images. I think including a portrait of Wim Crouwel brings more life to his section, and the addition of lines help separate the sections from each other. I have changed the image used in the phototypesetting section, as I realised that the previous image I was using was more suited to the 1950s technology than the 1960s. This new image shows the Digiset machine, which I talk about in the text in that section. The large image of the a shows how letters are created using the bitmap format.

I have also added captions to the images, which I think is a big improvement. Otherwise you won’t know what you’re looking at!

I feel like the layout and the spacing of the elements is hugely improved compared to my first version where there wasn’t any whitespace at all. But at the same time, I think there could be even more.

Things to try:

  • Changing the headings so they stand out more… maybe a different colour or typeface?
  • Changing the quote so it stands out more

Assessment 4 – 20th Century Type – First Drafts

It was quite a challenge, but I have (finally) come up with a handful of first drafts for my A1 information panel on typography in the 1960s. This exercise has revealed how little I know about InDesign, layouts and grids! I had no idea how many columns to make my grid, and so I wasted a lot of time fiddling around.

I have chosen the font Sitka for my poster, it’s a pretty neutral serif typeface which I don’t think looks too heavy on the page. I have gone with 20pt for my body text, which seems HUGE! I printed the first draft to get an idea of how big things were, and the font is really quite large… but I suppose it’s large enough to read if you’re standing in front of the panel without having to get too close. Is it too big? I have no idea.

Not all the drafts have a space to put a reference section and I’m not entirely sure if that needs to be included, so if it does, I’ll need to ensure I can fit it on there.

Draft 1


Draft 2


Draft 3


Draft 4


Draft 5


Assessment 4 – 20th Century Type – Content Proposal

Decade Allocated – 1960s

Topics Chosen

  1. Wim Crouwel
  2. Phototypesetting
  3. New Alphabet





References (APA)

Bigman, A. (2016). Digital Fonts: A condensed history. Retrieved from

Dutch Profiles. (2012). Dutch Profiles: Wim Crouwel [Video file]. Retrieved from

Iconofgraphics. (n.d.). Wim Crouwel. Retrieved from

Glancey, J. (2011). Wim Crouwel’s extraordinary alphabets. Retrieved from

Loxley, S. (2011). Type: the secret history of letters. London: Tauris.

MoMA. (n.d.). Wim Crouwel. New Alphabet. 1967. Retrieved from

Novin, G. (2011). A History of Graphic Design. Retrieved from

TypographyGuru. (2016). Phototypesetting with the Berthold ‹diatype› [Video file]. Retrieved from

Image References

Vormgevers, 1968, poster, 95x64cm, Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam

Edgar Fernhout, 1963, poster, Van Abbemuseum Eindhoven

Raysse, 1965, poster, Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam–design-posters-typography-design.jpg

Morris Louis, 1965, poster, Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam

Beelden in het heden, 1960, poster, 95x64cm, Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam

New Alphabet


Assessment 4 – 20th Century Type – Phototypesetting

For my “the development of typesetting or typographic technology from the period” portion of Assessment 4, I will be covering  phototypesetting.

Phototypesetting is a method of setting type, and it’s now obsolete thanks to the humble computer.

The way it works seems pretty complicated. A black disk is created and each character is cut out of it. This disk is placed into a phototypesetting machine. Light is projected onto the disk one character at a time, and the image is captured on photo-sensitive paper. A thousand captures or so later, and you have a page of type. The paper is developed and then can be used to create a mold that’s used for printing.

Image source:

This technology was created in the late 1940s, but in the 1960s it was digitised. Digital phototypesetting machines, like the Digitype machine created by Dr. Ing. Rudolf Hell, used cathode ray tubes instead of physical disks. This allowed the typesetter to check and edit their work before the final capture (yay for fixing typos), and also when floppy disks were invented later on, their work could be saved and stored for later.

Image source:

Assessment 4 – 20th Century Type – Wim Crouwel

For my “profile of a designer, design group, studio or movement, or an influential or significant typographic design work from the period” portion of Assessment 4 I have chosen the Dutch design Willem (Wim) Crouwel.

Willem Hendrick Crouwel was born in 1928 in Groningen, Netherlands. In early adulthood, he first studied Fine Arts, and was then drafted into the army. On his return, he began working as an abstract painter. In 1952, he studied Typography at the Gerrit Rietveld Academie in Amsterdam, and in 1954 he quit painting and began working as a freelance designer.

In 1963, Wim Crouwel helped to found Total Design (now called Total Identity), the first multidisciplinary design studio in the Netherlands.

Crouwel worked extensively with the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam, creating many posters, catalogues and exhibitions for the Museum. It was through his work with Stedelijk that he was able to develop and refine the application of the grid system, for which he is especially well known. My profile on Wim Crouwel will focus on his work and contribution to the grid system.

Crouwel designed the typeface New Alphabet in 1967, a unique looking typeface which includes only horizontal and vertical strokes, as early phototypesetting equipment could not replicate curves. The New Alphabet typeface was designed so that the letters were equal width and so they fit into his grid system both horizontally and vertically.

Another one of his typefaces is Gridnik.

Wim Crouwel has also contributed to the education of future designers, teaching at various design academies and universities over the years.

The work of Wim Crouwel has been exhibited all over the world and he has won a number of European design awards. The Design Museum in London and the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam featured his work in a major exhibition called “Wim Crouwel: A Graphic Odyssey” in 2011.

Vormgevers by Wim Crouwel (1968)


Assessment 4 – 20th Century Type – Fonts of the 1960s

For Assessment 4 we have to create content on three topics – the design of a typeface or type family from the period, the development of typesetting or typographic technology from the period, and either a profile of a designer, design group, studio or movement, or an influential or significant typographic design work from the period.

Let’s start with the easier one – typefaces of the 1960s. I have used the book Typography, referenced : a comprehensive visual guide to the language, history, and practice of typography by Tselentis et al (2012) to identify some fonts, and also this Wikipedia page.

Aurora (1960)

Ad Lib (1961)
Antique Olive (1962)
Eurostile (1962)
Forte (1962)
Compacta (1963)

Friz Quadrata (1965)
Impact (1965)
Rail Alphabet (1965)
New Alphabet (1967)

Sabon (1967)

Syntax (1968)
Bauhaus (1969)

This webpage also seems like it will be a useful reference –

I think that Eurostile and Bauhaus are probably the most commonly known fonts out of the above collection, but I really like the look of Fitz Quadrata. It’s been used in video games and science fiction-y things, and I think I will enjoy learning more about it.

Assessment 4 – 20th Century Type – Getting to Know the 1960s

For our fourth and final assessment for Typography, we are to produce an A0-sized information panel featuring aspects of type and typography from a given decade. The decade I’ve been assigned is the 1960s.

Research time!

The 1960s was a time of great change. According to,  The Vietnam War was fought, the Berlin Wall was built, the Beatles released their first single (Let It Be) and rose to fame, African Americans were given the right to vote, Kennedy was elected and also assassinated, and man landed on the moon.

In the world of design, lists the major influences of the time as:

  • Wes Wilson is one of the best-known graphic designers of the 60s era. His style, now synonymous with the psychedelic era, popularised a typeface that looked as if it was undulating or melting off the poster, reflecting the mind-melting sensations of psychedelic drugs.
  • Victor Moscoso popularised vibrating neon colour schemes to achieve the psychedelic effect, which clashed together colours from opposing spectrums of the colour wheel for eye-intensive images.
  • Roy Lichtenstein’s paintings featured chromatic colour schemes, thought bubbles, bold outlines, and repetitive dot stencils as a throwback to comic book styles. Although instead of handheld magazine-sized, like comics, his canvases expanded to billboard-sized.
  • Andy Warhol was one of the most famous of the pop artists along with Lichtenstein, worked to bridge the gap between pop culture and the bourgeoisie by combining commercial and literary art in his work. The iconic Coca Cola bottles and Campbell’s soup cans are well known and still studied to this day for their incredible influence on graphic design artwork.

Some other interesting links:

And now for a 1960s mood board!


Assessment 3 – Body and Soul – Putting it Together

Now the layout is done, the fonts have been matched, it’s time to put it together. This basically just involved replacing the matching text with the new text, picking a pull quote, and copy and pasting the body text which has been provided to us.

The body text is an article called The Language of Letters written by Max Kisman, a Dutch designer. The article describes the beginning of his typographical journey, starting from before he even knew what the word typography meant. If you’d like to read it, you can find it here.

The article also has a sub-heading “Letters of Identity” which is what I’ve chosen to use for my spread. The original spread was the second story from a series of four stories (called 4 Thoughts), so I’ve made my article the first story from a series called The Language of Letters. I also grabbed an image of Max Kisman from his website and placed that where the original author’s image was.

The pull quote I chose was “It became obvious to me that, by drawing my own letters, I became part of them. Or, they became part of me. It was my drawing, and I made it.” The quote then has another sentence “It was me.” which I thought would complete the pull quote better, but it didn’t fit on the five lines used by the existing pull quote, and when I extended it to six lines, I couldn’t get the lines to balance nicely.

For the image on the second page of the spread I debating replacing the original image with one by Max Kisman, but the style didn’t suit the rest of the layout. For the caption I chose “The more you produce, the closer you’ll get.”, which comes from later on in the text. I’m not 100% happy with that, but it’s hard to choose a caption for an image that isn’t there.

Following are images of my work in progress… the original spread, my version, and an image of the new one overlaid at 50% opacity over the original spread.



v2 overlaid_small